miércoles, 15 de agosto de 2007

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Martín Bonfil Olivera
Milenio Diario, 15 de agosto de 2007

El ser humano tiende a vanagloriarse de su superioridad sobre los demás organismos del planeta (herencia que en parte le debemos al cristianismo, con su mito del “rey de la creación”, hoy afortunadamente rebatido por una necesaria cultura de protección de la biodiversidad).

Nuestra supervivencia depende de otras especies para obtener el oxígeno que respiramos y el alimento que consumimos. Y no sólo eso: no hay ejemplo más dramático de nuestra íntima interrelación con otros seres vivos que el de las bacterias que habitan normalmente en nuestro intestino. Uno pensaría que tener bacterias, con su fama de causar de enfermedades, colonizando nuestras tripas no es de lo más sano. Pero lo normal es que haya muchísimas: constituyen un verdadero ecosistema, formado por unos 100 billones de células bacterianas de 400 especies distintas (¡diez veces más que el número total de células humanas que conforman nuestro cuerpo!).

Gracias a ellas podemos digerir nuestra comida, producen algunas vitaminas y son incluso necesarias para el buen desarrollo de nuestro intestino y sistema inmunitario. Simplemente, no podríamos vivir sin ellas. Se puede decir, sin exagerar, que un ser humano es él y sus bacterias.

Por ello es importante el estudio realizado por un equipo de investigadores de la Escuela de Medicina de la Universidad de Stanford, dirigido por Patrick Brown, y publicado en el número de julio de la revista PLOS Biology. Describe cómo el intestino de 14 bebés estudiados es colonizado por bacterias desde que son recién nacidos (el vientre materno es un ambiente estéril) y a lo largo de su primer año de vida. Sus resultados son un importante primer paso para entender la ecología de esta importante simbiosis.

Contrario a lo que afirman los libros de bacteriología, la colonización de los intestinos infantiles no es ordenada, sino caótica: la diversidad de especies de cada bebé es única, y parece depender de encuentros fortuitos del bebé con bacterias de su ambiente (en el canal vaginal de su madre, en su leche, en el aire, en sus primeros alimentos…).

Sin embargo, al cabo de un año la microbiota intestinal de los bebés comienza a parecerse a la de un adulto normal. A pesar del comienzo azaroso, al final parece que las especies mejor adaptadas a vivir en nuestro intestino predominan. La evolución de nuestra simbiosis no es, finalmente, tan azarosa.

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